What is the purpose of communication? Is it to practice language? Maybe it is to polish our verb forms and word order? Perhaps it is to use all the vocabulary that we have learned in a language? Hopefully, we can all agree that this sort of “communication” that has not have a clear goal is not the reason that we engage in language learning. The reason we communicate in any language in any form is to convey or understand a message.
When it comes to understanding or conveying a message there are three ways of looking at the communication. The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines put communication to these categories: interpersonal, interpretive and presentational. Each of these modes of communication looks at the message in unique way. A solid understanding of how a message is conveyed or understood when speaking, writing or reading is essential to using various tools needed to effectively communicate.
Presentational communication is one-way speaking or writing that does not allow for real time clarification of meaning. This means that the speaker/writer has to be sure to “fill in the gaps” and have a solid understanding of what the listener or reader knows or needs to know to interpret the message.
Conversely, interpretive communication is one-way listening or reading that also does not allow for real time clarification of meaning. When reading and listening in this context the reader/listener needs to fill in their own gaps in understanding. This may require accessing personal knowledge of the topic or doing research. The most effective tool is the use of context clues and identifying what is understood to make meaning globally.
Interpersonal communication, on the other hand, is two-way speaking that allows for clarification of the message in real time. When communicating interpersonally all speakers and listeners are involved in creating and interpreting the message and work together to assure that there is a collective understanding.
These tables below lay out the three modes of communication.
I’ve been working on writing with my novice mid class (3rd graders). They are consistently in the novice mid range when speaking.
In this activity I first gave students a sheet with pictures of words that they know well orally and have seen written. They wrote in the words as they remember them (challenging in French because there are lots of unpronounced letters..but their spelling is recognizable to a sympathetic reader). I then gave them picture sentences and they wrote the sentences using their reference sheet. In this video I am going around and asking students to “read” the sentences without looking at what they wrote.
In a follow-up they cut out the sentences that they wrote and the individual pictures. They then reconstructed the picture sentence based on what they wrote. This is helpful to reinforce syntax.
This is a fun and interactive way for students to practice vocabulary meaning, recognition and spelling. I call this activity “Everyone to the Table!”
Begin with 4-5 tables with 3-4 students at each table. On each table put 5-8 pictures of vocabulary that students are learning along with a piece of paper or index card with the words for the pictures. Students can easily be involved in this part of the process by having them draw or find pictures on the internet prior to the day of the activity.. They can also write the words needed on index cards or pieces of paper. Memory/concentration cards work well in this activity as well.
For the first few rounds students should work together with their team to put the picture and word card together. They should mix up the pictures and words before beginning. Have students do this several times and the group that assembles the pairs first raises their hand and gets a point for their team. With each subsequent round add in 2 new picture/word pairs. It’s good to add in some review vocabulary as well.
Once groups understand what they are supposed to do, the class can move on to another version of the game. This time teams mix up their words and pictures, but when the teachers says “Everyone to the table!” groups rotate to a new table and pair up the words and pictures. The first group to assemble the pairs raises their hands and gets a point. Groups then mix up the pictures and words and again rotate to the next table. New picture/word pairs can be added in this round too. When 2-3 rotations are complete the team with the most points wins.
This is a typical writing and reading (Emerging Literacy) activity that I do with novice students (with the goal being to read and write at a novice mid sentence level*). In this particular version, my 3rd graders had learned lots of words for animals and we had recently begun learning the words for places in nature where they can be found.
The class could list about 20 animals (individual words-novice low*), and they are beginning to recognize how they are written. We started this class by listing the words on the board (animals and places in nature), then I gave them the verb “est” (is) and some prepositions to go along with the places (as phrases; “sur l’herbe” -on the grass). Students then put the structure together verbally in pairs to makes sentences (novice mid). We then moved on to writing the sentences and drawing a picture to show the meaning (novice mid*). Once done, I went around to each student and had then read the sentences, then I covered the sentences and had them describe the pictures orally.
*ACTFL Proficiency Scale
The importance of teaching and learning vocabulary in context is spreading. Gone (hopefully) are the days of teaching words in isolation and out of context. We need to keep this in mind as well when students write. I am guilty of asking students to “write each vocabulary word in a sentence” when the sentences are in isolation and don’t follow any sort of logic or context.
When would anyone need to write like this? The answer is never, or only in a foreign language class. So, I needed to change my writing prompts to make sure that students are writing with a context. This tends to be a bit more manageable with students that have a higher proficiency, but I wanted to make sure that I was instilling the concept and skill of writing in context with my younger (lower proficiency) students early on so that this would become the norm as they gain in proficiency.
Here is an example of a writing assignment that I do with my elementary students to scaffold them into writing in context. It is a foldable that represents a house. They begin by “building” their house, which is simply folding a piece of paper in half, then folding in each side. Students then cut two lines on each flap and glue on a roof. Next, they write the names of rooms in the house (and the yard) on the flaps, which represent doors or windows.
Students then write six sentences stating what they like or don’t like to do in each room in the house. This gives them an opportunity to use all the verbs they have learned in context along with the rooms in the house. Once I go over the draft sentences with each student, they write the sentence inside the room.
Finally, students cut out a picture of the activity and glue that inside the room as well. This is a great way to reinforce the meaning of the words in the sentence without resorting to translation.
When finished, these can be used to have a conversation with students where they read the sentences of other students and respond to react to what they read.
Lots of possibilities with other concepts. I’m just getting starting. Please comment on other ideas.
Lingro.com: No need to look up words in the dictionary or with an online translator with this useful translation website. Enter a website address and you’ll be taken to a Lingro supported version of the page where every word is clickable. Click on a word to see its definition. There are 11 languages available with translation available between each of the individual languages. There are even ways to track the words that you click to check yourself after reading the page in the foreign language.
Text highlighting is a great way to assess what students understand in a reading without translating or responding to questions. Decide on colors and review the colors and parts of speech with examples. You way want to have students only focus on one particular part of speech (subjects = who?) or various responses. This is also a helpful activity for students to practice recognizing parts of speech in a sentence. You could also set it up so that students highlight various verb tenses to demonstrate their ability to recognize the tenses and contextualize them when reading. It is likely that not all students will have all of the colors of highlighters. In this case I have them complete the activity by rotating to stations around the room.
This activity gives beginner students an opportunity to see how much they understand in the target language. To begin, the teacher posts 6 paragraphs written in the target language around the classroom. It is important to focus on vocabulary and structures that the class has covered. Students are given a set of questions whose answers can be found in each of the paragraphs. Students move around individually or in pairs to each paragraph and record the answers. This is a great beginning reading activity that can then be used to get students speaking in class once they have all of the information and the teacher verifies the information with the class orally. Once students are familiar with this type of activity it can be used with more advanced vocabulary and structures in subsequent years. It is a great way to focus on cultural elements as well.
These activities can be created using WORD documents.
You can download full versions here: FRENCH SPANISH
Students enjoy playing Memory to review and practice vocabulary. The cards can also be printed back to back and used as flashcards with pictures on one side and words on the other. Depending on the level of the students, they can make sentence out loud each time they get a pair. I have found that this is also a great station activity.
Download Memory Games on these topics :
French Memory Games
Spanish Memory Games
Sports and Activities
Food and Drinks
Fruits and Vegetables
Rooms ad Furniture
Jobs and Professions
Reading aloud by the teacher is often discouraged in the foreign language classroom as this puts the focus on the teacher and does not give the students an opportunity to practice reading aloud themselves. Reading aloud by the teacher, in fact, is particularly important for language learners at various stages of learning. Beginning readers tend to read word by word. Reading aloud by the teacher helps them to process larger language units and phrases rather than focusing on single words and translation. A study by Amer (ELT Journal) investigated the effect of teacher reading aloud on the reading comprehension of foreign language students reading a story. Results clearly demonstrated that the experimental group (teacher read aloud) outperformed the control group (student silent reading). This indicates that reading aloud by the teacher can have a significant positive effect on reading comprehension. It is interesting to try reading the story to students without having them follow along to see how much they understand, then to read along with the text. The decreased focus on word-level comprehension is emphasized here and it will show students in a very clear and obvious way that they do not need to translate word for word when reading. This will then, ideally, transfer to their own reading comprehension, either aloud or silently.