Category Archives: Teaching Methodology and Research

Supporting Proficiency Growth in the Language Classroom

One of our priorities as language teachers is to support students in their efforts to communicate proficiently and with confidence. Though this can seem to be very lofty objective, there are practical procedures that we can implement to facilitate students’ progression to higher proficiency levels. These techniques and approaches offer guidance for teachers looking to empower their students on the path to proficiency.

Supporting Proficiency Growth in the Language Classroom (French, Spanish)

Language Proficiency

Before we jump into the strategies, let’s take a moment to consider language proficiency. How do you currently assess your students’ proficiency levels? Are you familiar with the ACTFL guidelines and their descriptions of Novice, Intermediate, and Advanced proficiency? It’s crucial to have a clear understanding of where your students are and where you want them to go. Take look at this blog post to see what language text types look like at the various proficiency levels.  You can also learn all about the proficiency levels in this podcast episode.

Let’s explore some strategies that will support students in leveling up their proficiency..

Novice Proficiency: Building a Strong Foundation

  • Comprehensible Input: Novice-level students thrive on comprehensible input. This means providing them with language that they can understand, even if it’s slightly beyond their current proficiency level. Engage them with simple stories, visuals, and gestures that make the language come alive.
  • Repetition and Recycling: Repetition is key for Novice learners. Encourage students to practice vocabulary and phrases repeatedly through games, dialogues, and interactive activities.

Intermediate Proficiency: Moving Toward Independence

  • Authentic Communication: As students progress to the Intermediate level, shift the focus to authentic communication. Encourage them to express opinions, share experiences, and engage in conversations.
  • Expanding Vocabulary: Intermediate learners benefit from expanding their vocabulary. Introduce them to synonyms, idiomatic expressions, and culturally relevant words and phrases.

Practical Strategies to Empower Students in Increasing Proficiency

Integrated Skills: Encourage students to read texts, watch videos, and engage in discussions that require them to use all aspects of language – listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

Cultural Context: Connect language proficiency to cultural context. Help students understand how language is used in real-life situations within different cultures.

Feedback and Assessment: Provide timely and constructive feedback. Give students specific comments on their language use, highlighting areas for improvement.

Self-Assessment: Have students reflect on their language progress and set goals for improvement.

Peer Collaboration: Arrange activities that require students to work together, provide feedback to each other, and learn from their peers.

Celebrate Progress:  Celebrate progress, no matter how small. Recognize students’ achievements and growth in proficiency. Whether it’s an improved pronunciation or successfully navigating a conversation, acknowledging their efforts boosts confidence.

Putting It All Together

Supporting students’ proficiency growth is a dynamic journey. It involves understanding their current proficiency levels, scaffolding their learning, and fostering a supportive and engaging classroom environment. As language teachers, we have the privilege of guiding our students along this exciting path, equipping them with the skills and confidence to become proficient communicators.

Shifting the Focus From Grammar to Language Functions

As we step into our classrooms each day, we look for ways to support students understanding the language and using it with confidence in authentic situations. That’s certainly not a simple goal, but one that we can work toward with the right approach.

Shifting the Focus From Grammar to Language Functions (French, Spanish)

The idea of language functions (how we use the language) has inspired a paradigm shift in our teaching methodology. Traditional (or “Legacy” as aI like to say) language teaching focused on grammar and structures. With a focus on functions teachers are embracing a more encompassing strategy—one that revolves around the idea of language functions, or what what students do with the language.

It’s a shift that fundamentally transforms the way we view language teaching, placing authentic communication and language functions at the forefront. Here are practical strategies and examples to support our focus on language functions.

Novice Levels: Making Language Practical

At the novice level, students are like linguistic explorers, taking their first steps into the language terrain. Traditionally, they might have been bombarded with verb conjugations and intricate grammar rules. However, the shift towards language functions allows them to focus on practical, real-world applications.

Novice Low:

  • Students can engage in simple role-play conversations, such as ordering food. They are encouraged to use common greetings, basic food-related vocabulary, and appropriate phrases.
  • The goal is not grammatical perfection but practical communication. Students learn to convey their preferences in an authentic context, laying the foundation for real-life interactions.

Novice High:

  • Students can participate in simulated scenarios such as traveling. Instead of overwhelming them with complex grammar structures, the focus is on enabling them to ask for directions, purchase tickets, and express basic needs.
  • This functional approach helps them interact confidently during hypothetical trips. They understand that language learning is not just about constructing grammatically accurate sentences but about using the language effectively to navigate different situations.

Intermediate Levels: Expanding Communication

As students progress to intermediate levels, they are capable of more substantial interactions. The traditional approach might have kept them confined to rigid sentence structures and limited vocabulary. However, emphasizing language functions empowers them to engage in meaningful conversations and express their ideas authentically.

Intermediate Low:

  •  Students might explore the function of persuading and giving opinions. Instead of fixating on intricate subjunctive forms, they engage in debates about topics like environmental conservation. Here, they use expressions like “I think that” and “in my opinion”  to articulate their viewpoints. They discover that language is a tool for expressing their thoughts and beliefs effectively.

Intermediate High:

  • Students can narrate and describe. Rather than being confined to formulaic sentences, they recount personal experiences, share anecdotes, and describe memorable events using a variety of verb tenses and adjectives. They understand that language is not just a set of grammar rules but a means to convey their unique experiences and emotions.

Embrace the Shift

As language teachers, it’s essential that we embrace this paradigm shift from a focus on grammar and accuracy to a broader emphasis on language functions and authentic communication. By doing so, we equip our students with the tools they need to navigate the multilingual world confidently. This shift ensures that language learning is not just a theoretical exercise, but a skill that can be applied in real-life situations.

Vertical Curriculum in World Language Programs

Have you ever found yourself wondering how to ensure your language students have a solid foundation and continue to thrive as they progress through grade levels?  Language educators often grapple with this question as they strive to provide the best possible language learning experience for their students. We’re going to explore an effective solution – Vertical Curriculum.

Vertical Curriculum in World Language Classes (French, Spanish)

What Exactly is Vertical Curriculum Alignment?

Vertical Curriculum is like building a strong foundation for a language house. Each level adds a layer of skills and knowledge that supports the next. Imagine trying to put on the roof before laying the walls – it just wouldn’t work! This alignment is essential because it ensures students are building on what they’ve learned, continuously building on their skills.

In a well-aligned curriculum, students in lower grades may start with basic vocabulary and sentence structure. As they progress to higher grade levels, they can confidently take on more complex structures and vocabulary, such as discussing literature, culture, and global issues.

Benefits for Students and Teachers

When a curriculum is aligned vertically students benefit from a seamless transition between grade levels, preventing gaps in their language learning. A student who grasps basic conversational skills in middle school can confidently approach more advanced topics, such as discussing literary works when they reach high school.

Teachers also benefit from a well-aligned curriculum. Collaboration across grade levels becomes more accessible as educators share common language around student progress and instructional strategies.

What Is Involved in Vertical Curriculum?

Scope and Sequence

  • A well-structured scope and sequence act as a roadmap for language learning and acquisition. It defines not only what topics are taught, but also when they are introduced.
  • At the novice-low level, students may explore basic vocabulary related to greetings and introductions, while at the intermediate-high level, they get into complex topics such as literature analysis.

Language Skills Progression

  • Language skills, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing, are interdependent and build upon one another.
  • Novice-level students may begin with simple listening and speaking activities  and  gradually progress to reading short texts and writing basic sentences as they advance to the intermediate level.

Vocabulary and Grammar Development

  • Vocabulary serves as the building blocks of language, while grammar provides the structural framework. Effective vertical curriculum alignment ensures that students learn vocabulary and grammar progressively.
  • The teaching of common French verbs like “to be” and “to have” at the novice level paves the way for more complex verb conjugations at higher proficiency levels.

How Do We Create a Vertical Curriculum?

Collaboration among Teachers

  • Collaboration among teachers from various grade levels is a cornerstone of vertical curriculum alignment. Imagine a group of teachers, from elementary to high school, coming together to discuss their teaching strategies. They can identify common challenges, share successful activities, and collectively enhance their curriculum alignment.

Vertical Team Meetings

  • Vertical team meetings are like a roundtable discussion where educators from different grade levels gather to exchange ideas and experiences. These meetings can be instrumental in streamlining curriculum alignment efforts.

Assessment Consistency

  • Consistency in assessment methods and criteria is paramount in vertical curriculum alignment. A shared understanding of assessment practices ensures that students are evaluated fairly and accurately across grade levels.
  • Teachers collaboratively develop rubrics for assessment that outline specific criteria for language elements such as proficiency level text type and vocabulary usage.
  • With consistent assessment criteria in place, students can track their progress from one year to the next, providing them with a clear sense of their language development.

How Can We Address Some Challenges?

Time and Resources

  • Aligning curriculum across grade levels can be time-consuming, but there are strategies to streamline the process. For instance, utilizing digital platforms for collaborative lesson planning can save educators significant time. Teachers can collectively design lessons, share resources, and ensure alignment without the need for lengthy meetings and emails.

Resistance to Change

  • Change can be challenging, but it can also lead to exciting advancements in language education. One way to address resistance to change is to gradually introduce new teaching strategies or technologies.

Action Steps for Language Teachers


  • To begin the journey of vertical curriculum alignment, language teachers can conduct a self-assessment of their existing curriculum. This involves reviewing the curriculum, identifying gaps or misalignments, and highlighting areas that require adjustment or enhancement.

Small-Scale Alignment

  • Language teachers can start small by selecting a single unit or theme and ensuring it aligns seamlessly across grade levels.
  • For example, if 7th-grade students study family members, teachers can ensure that 8th-grade students can build on that foundation by discussing family relationships more extensively in the following year.
  • This approach allows educators to focus on refining specific aspects of the curriculum without feeling overwhelmed by the prospect of a complete overhaul.

Conclusion…and Then It’s Your Turn

Vertical curriculum alignment in world language classes is an effective to support students’ language proficiency. It creates a structured and cohesive progression of skills and knowledge, benefiting both students and teachers. By embracing collaboration, consistent assessment practices, and a growth mindset, language teachers can create a strong foundation for their students’ language learning journey.

Strategies for Effective Error Correction in the Language Classroom

In the communicative language classroom, nurturing effective communication and language proficiency takes precedence. While linguistic accuracy plays a role, the primary objective is conveying meaning and facilitating genuine interactions. Let’s look at some strategies for providing constructive error correction, focusing on meaningful communication. We’ll address different proficiency levels, from novice to intermediate, and provide examples.

Selective Correction

Prioritize corrections that hinder comprehension or effective communication.

Novice Level (French):

  • Student: “Je aller à l’école hier.”
  • Feedback: “C’est bien que tu parles du passé, mais il faut dire ‘Je suis allé(e) à l’école hier.’ Bon travail!”

Intermediate Level (Spanish):

  • Student: “Yo vio una película anoche.”
  • Feedback: “Es genial que estés usando el pasado, pero recuerda decir ‘Yo vi una película anoche.’ Sigue así.”


Rephrase errors without explicitly pointing them out, allowing students to self-correct.

Novice Level (French):

  • Student: “Je mangé pizza hier.”
  • Recasting (French): “Ah, tu as mangé de la pizza hier?”
  • Student’s Self-correction: “Oui, j’ai mangé de la pizza hier.”

Intermediate Level (Spanish):

  • Student: “Nosotros ir a la playa el fin de semana pasado.”
  • Recasting (Spanish): “¿Ustedes fueron a la playa el fin de semana pasado?”
  • Student’s Self-correction: “Sí, nosotros fuimos a la playa el fin de semana pasado.”

Error Logs

Encourage students to maintain error logs, promoting self-awareness and self-correction.

Novice Level (French):

  • Student: Repeatedly forgets to use articles (e.g., “J’aime manger pizza.”)
  • Error Log Entry: “Oublié les articles. Je dois dire ‘J’aime manger de la pizza.'”

Intermediate Level (Spanish):

  • Student: Confuses verb tenses (e.g., “Hoy yo comió pescado.”)
  • Error Log Entry: “Confundí los tiempos verbales. Debo decir ‘Hoy yo comí pescado.'”

Delayed Correction

Provide feedback after speaking activities, allowing students to focus on communication during the task.

Novice Level (French):

  • Activity: Role-play at a restaurant where students take on the roles of server and customer.
  • Feedback (after activity): “Bravo! Vous avez bien communiqué vos commandes. Maintenant, faisons une petite correction. ‘Je voudrais une salade’ est la phrase correcte.”

Intermediate Level (Spanish):

  • Activity: Group discussion about vacation plans.
  • Feedback (after activity): “Excelente discusión. Han utilizado bien el pretérito perfecto compuesto. Ahora, algunas correcciones: ‘Voy a visitar a mi familia’ es la frase correcta.”

Effective error correction in the communicative language classroom revolves around balancing meaningful communication and linguistic accuracy. By applying these strategies tailored to students’ proficiency levels, teachers can empower their students to communicate confidently while continually improving their language skills.


Input and Output in the Language Classroom

Language acquisition is a multifaceted process, shaped by various factors and methodologies. The ideas of input and output often play a significant role in any discussion of how language is acquired.  Let’s look at the intricate interplay between input and output, drawing insights from the book “Common Ground” by Florencia Henshaw and Maris Hawkins.

Input and Output in the Language Classroom (French, Spanish)

How is Language Acquired?

At its core, language acquisition is an implicit process, unconsciously constructing a linguistic system by connecting form and meaning based on the input we receive. It’s the subconscious work that takes place while we’re immersed in comprehending messages, operating beyond our conscious control. Language acquisition thrives on grasping the portions of input that assist in decoding the intended message, as opposed to consciously dissecting language rules.

Communication, conversely, revolves around the deliberate interpretation and expression of meaning. Our focal point on communication hinges on two pivotal questions: What information or content is being conveyed? And what will the audience do with this information? These inquiries form the bedrock of meaningful interaction and exchange.

The Role of Input

Input serves as the cornerstone of language acquisition since understanding must precede the establishment of form-meaning connections.

The Role of Comprehensible Input

Krashen’s Input Hypothesis introduces the concept that learners progress in language when they comprehend input that is slightly beyond their current proficiency level, often referred to as “i+1.” While Krashen’s ideas have evolved and faced criticism, a consensus remains regarding the importance of comprehensible input. Crafting such input involves a combination of strategies:

  • Ensuring that the topic and text type align with students’ proficiency levels.
  • Employing visual cues, body language, and target language equivalents.
  • Utilizing examples that relate to common associations and cognates.
  • Gradually delivering content and simplifying language.
  • Embracing circumlocution to convey intended meaning.
  • Incorporating authentic resources to provide genuine context.
  • Implementing comprehension checks to maintain communication-driven interactions.

While explicit instruction isn’t deemed necessary for acquisition, directing learners’ attention to grammatical forms during meaningful communication can be beneficial in strengthening form-meaning connections.

The Role of Output

Output, defined as the production of the target language to convey meaning, plays an essential but distinct role in language development. Merrill Swain’s Output Hypothesis suggests that pushing learners to produce accurate and meaningful messages facilitates language development by prompting them to pay closer attention to linguistic form. Output assists learners in recognizing their gaps in knowledge and affords opportunities for testing hypotheses. However, Hawkins and Henshaw contend that output doesn’t construct the linguistic system; its primary function lies in helping learners identify their input needs.

While there is often a significant emphasis on input, the role of output remains paramount, particularly in communicative language teaching. Traditional teaching methods tend to prioritize output, associating communication primarily with speaking and writing. However, the equilibrium between input and output isn’t dictated by a fixed ratio. Instead, it is essential to provide ample communicative input and grant the linguistic system the time it requires to develop organically, particularly at the novice level.

You can also listen to episode 63 of the World Language Classroom Podcast where I go in-depth on the topic of input and output.

In Conclusion

The journey of language acquisition involves a delicate dance between input and output. Both are integral components, each contributing uniquely to the development of linguistic competence. By understanding their roles and finding a harmonious equilibrium, educators can guide learners towards achieving language proficiency and effective communication.


Henshaw, Florencia Gilio, and Maris Hawkins. Common Ground Second Language Acquisition Theory Goes to the Classroom. Focus, an Imprint of Hackett Publishing Company, 2022.

Sales, Antonia De. “The Output Hypothesis and its Influence in Second language Learning/Teaching: An interview with Merrill Swain.” Interfaces Brasil/Canadá, vol. 20, 2020, pp. 1–12,

95: Curriculum and Structure in the CI Classroom with Adriana Ramirez

What does curriculum look like in a classroom that puts comprehensible input at the center of the language acquisition experience? Is it possible, in fact, to follow a curriculum, in either a traditional or reinvented way? In this episode, we look at this very question with Adriana Ramirez, a Spanish teacher in Canada. Adriana helps us to see what curriculum looks like in her classroom as she implements a CI approach to language teaching and learning.

Topics in this Episode:

  • the key aspects of a CI (Comprehensible Input) classroom that are a departure from some more legacy approaches
  • “curriculum” in a CI classroom and how do we plan for and document the learning
  • the structure of a lesson and the student experience
  • why  CI is ultimately more beneficial than a vocabulary and grammar-focused curriculum
  • some misconceptions and critiques about CI

Connect with Adriana Ramirez:

Work with Joshua either in person or remotely.

Follow wherever you listen to podcasts.

Teachers want to hear from you and what you are proud of in your classroom.
Join me on the podcast.
We record conversations remotely, so you can be anywhere.

Reflecting on Our Language Teaching

How often do we stop to reflect on our language teaching?  Hopefully we take the time and opportunity to do it regularly so that we are teaching our students as effectively as possible.

Reflecting on Our Language Teaching, French, Spanish

Let’s look at how we can think about our work as language teachers using Reflective Practice.  I know, this all sounds way up there in the theory world.  I promise you it’s not and that it’s fairly simple.  Stick with me you’ll be looking at your teaching in ways that help to confirm what you are doing as beneficial and successful, along with some ways to perhaps modify, enhance or improve.

Lesson Reflection

One of the things I appreciate the most about the language teaching community is how much teachers want to be effective with students.  The ethos of the group seems to be an openness and willingness to engage in reflective practice.

Why Reflect?

Reflection can help you to be more creative and try new things. It’s very easy to get stuck in a rut and it can be helpful to think about what you are doing and why you are doing it. This can help to spark new ideas and ways of thinking.

Reflective Practice for language teachers

Here’s a simple way to look closely on how we are teaching and find those opportunities to confirm what you are doing as beneficial and successful, while also finding ways to modify, enhance or improve.

  1. Teach
  2. Assess the effect your teaching has on learning
  3. Consider what can improve the quality of teaching and learning
  4. Try the new ideas
  5. Reflect on effectiveness 
  6. Repeat

Number 3 is where the opportunity to modify, enhance or improve lies.

Success Criteria

Success Criteria helps to make this reflective process possible.  These concepts are from The Success Criteria Playbook by John T. Almarode, Douglas Fisher, Kateri Thunder, Nancy Frey (2021).  I spoke with Tim Eagan on Episode 60 of the podcast if you want to go really deep with Success Criteria. 

Reflecting on Our Language Teaching, French, Spanish

But to put it simply:

  • Success Criteria are essentially statements that specify the evidence to show whether or not you have met the learning intention, such as “I can” statements.
  • “what you want students to know and be able to do by the end of one or more lessons.”
  • Without learning intentions and success criteria, they write, “lessons wander and students become confused and frustrated.

The important and simple questions:

  • What will be learned?
  • Why is it going to be learned?
  • How will I know that it has been learned?
  • What will I do with what I learned?

Use the these Success Criteria questions to inform our Can Do Statements and to reflect on that important #3 in the reflective process above.

  • Consider what can improve the quality of teaching and learning

Put this together with the Success Criteria questions to determine the success or breakdown in what was learned? 

  • What will be learned?
    • Was what students were learning clear or unclear?
  • Why is it going to be learned?
    • Was the reason why students were learning the materia clear or unclear?]
  • How will I know that it has been learned?
    • Were students able to demonstrate mastery?
  • What will I do with what I learned?
    • Were students able to do something with what they learned?

Then, revisit the Can Do’s for next time and modify as needed.  

Reflective Practice for Language Teachers in a nutshell:

  1. Plan and Teach using success criteria
  2. Assess the effect your teaching has on learning
  3. Consider what can improve the quality of teaching and learning (success or breakdown on the success criteria)
  4. Try the new ideas
  5. Reflect on effectiveness
  6. Repeat

You can also listen to episode 77 of the podcast where I break down this reflective process.Reflecting on Our Language Teaching, French, Spanish

Compelling Input and Output in the Language Classroom

It is essential that language be comprehensible so that that students can make form-meaning connections, however it also has to be of interest and compelling to learners. This is what motivates them to engage and make meaning. But, what about how students use the language they are acquiring?  That also needs to be compelling to students.  Let’s look at how to make input compelling along with output activities that are of particular interest to learners as well.

Compelling Input and Compelling Output, Comprehensible Inout, CI, French and Spanish.

Comprehensible Input Hypothesis:

  • Language acquisition occurs when learners are exposed to messages that are slightly beyond their current level of language competence
  • Learners acquire language subconsciously, through their own natural processing abilities, rather than through direct instruction or explicit grammar rules.

Compelling Input Hypothesis:

  • Learners are more likely to acquire language when they are exposed to messages that are interesting, engaging, and personally relevant to them.
  • Compelling input captures learners’ attention and motivates them to engage with the language, which can lead to more effective language acquisition.

Making Input Compelling:

  • Incorporate authentic materials, such as news articles, podcasts, videos, and TV shows, that are interesting and relevant to your students’ interests and cultural background. The format can be as compelling as the topic.
  • What movies, TV shows, books, games, sports events or local events are happening? School related activities?
  • Use exit tickets to figure out what the interests are?  Use Card Talk Drawings.
  • Focus on meaningful communication instead of grammar rules. Research has shown that language acquisition is more effective when students are focused on meaning rather than form.
  • at their age and proficiency level

Compelling Input and Compelling Output, Comprehensible Inout, CI, French and Spanish.

Compelling Input and Compelling Output, Comprehensible Inout, CI, French and Spanish.

 Making Output Compelling:

  • Provide students with opportunities to use the language in authentic situations, such as role-playing scenarios, mock interviews, and real-life simulations. 
  • Give students choice and autonomy in their learning by allowing them to select their own topics and projects. 
  • Provide feedback that is specific, actionable, and focuses on both form and meaning. 
  • Use the same formats for making input compelling to provide opportunities for compelling output.

Compelling Input and Compelling Output, Comprehensible Inout, CI, French and Spanish.

Compelling Input and Compelling Output, Comprehensible Inout, CI, French and Spanish.

Podcast episode on this topic:


  • Krashen, S. D. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implication. 
  • Krashen, S. D. (2011). The Compelling (not just interesting) Input Hypothesis  

83: Supporting Students with Learning Disabilities with Danja Mahoney

How do you, your department or school support and integrate students with learning disabilities into your language program? In this episode, we are talking about teaching all students, with a particular focus on students with learning disabilities.  I’m joined by Danja Mahoney, a Latin and Spanish teacher in Massachusetts, who has done extensive research on this topic.  She is here to speak about her doctoral research with actionable tips and advice for all of us.

Topics in this episode:

  • Can every student succeed in a language class?
  • Are there students whose disability prevents them from learning a language?
  • The research on the success of students with disabilities learning a language.
  • What teachers can do to build the type of engagement necessary for students with learning disabilities to learn language.
  • Examples of accommodations and modifications that teachers can implement to support all students in their language classes.

Connect withe Danja Mahoney:

Work with Joshua either in person or remotely.

Follow wherever you listen to podcasts.

Teachers want to hear from you and what you are proud of in your classroom.
Join me on the podcast.
We record conversations remotely, so you can be anywhere.

73: Common Ground Redux and a Reminder

Have you read Common Ground yet?  This book by Florencia Henshaw and Maris Hawkins has been widely used by many educators in the language teacher community.  This week’s episode is a rebroadcast of my first episode in the series that I devoted to the book in October. I’m sharing it again with the reminder that you have a few weeks left (end of December 2022) to get your own copy of Common Ground with a 25% discount through the link to Hackett Publishing in the show notes.  Listen for the first time, or listen again for inspiration form this incredibly useful publication from Florencia Henshaw and Maris Hawkins.

Topics in the episode:

  • Why this book? Why now? 
  • Why I’m a fan of Florencia Henshaw and Maris Hawkins.  
  • How the book is set up.
  • What to look for in the upcoming episodes devoted to Common Ground.
  • Making the discussion interactive on Twitter with Joshua (@wlcalssoom), Florencia Henshaw (@Prof_F_Henshaw) and Maris Hawkins (@Marishawkins).

Get your own copy of Common Ground.  Hackett Publishing has generously offered a 25% discount when you use the code WLC2022. [Available through December 31, 2022].

**The 25% off discount code can be used for any book through the end of December, 2022.  Hackett publishes several intermediate language-learning textbooks in Spanish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Latin, and Classical Greek. New releases include Cinema for French Conversation, Cinema for Spanish Conversation, and Les Français.


Work with Joshua either in person or remotely.


Teachers want to hear from you and what you are proud of in your classroom. Join me on the podcast.  We record conversations remotely, so you can be anywhere.


Follow wherever you listen to podcasts.