One of the ACTFL Core Practices is to teach with the Backwards Design Model. Backward Design is a teaching method that involves designing educational curriculum by setting goals before choosing instructional methods and forms of assessment. This teaching model lends itself very well to proficiency-based language teaching as it requires the teacher to focus on what students will ultimately be able to do with the language, rather than simply knowing about the language.
Traditional language teaching has often focused on learning and producing language structures and vocabulary through practice-type activities. When it comes time to assessment (or testing) it has typically been a matter of verifying what students can tell the teacher about the language, such as vocabulary lists or verb forms, rather than demonstrating what he or she is able to do with the language.
Backwards design planning and execution happens in three phases or stages.
1. Identify Desired Results
Consider these questions when identifying these goals and desired results for a foreign language unit or lesson.
- What will students do with the language?
- Does this goal only focus on what the students know about the language?
- What is the current proficiency level of the students? (novice mid, intermediate low, etc.)
- What is the text type that students can produce? (lists, chunked phrases, discrete sentences, connected sentences, etc.)
- Is this goal specific?
- Can I create 2-3 can do statements to focus on this goal?
2. Determine Acceptable Evidence
Consider these questions when determining acceptable of language learning and progressing in proficiency.
- Are there opportunities to demonstrate proficiency in the three communication modes? (interpretative, presentational, interpersonal)
- Are the prompts at the appropriate proficiency level? (novice mid, intermediate low, etc.)
- Do the prompts focus on the text type of students at this proficiency level? (lists, chunked phrases, discrete sentences, connected sentences, etc.)
- Is there opportunity for student choice?
- Do the assessments provide insight in to students’ ability to perform the can do statements articulated in the goals and desired outcomes?
- Are there opportunities for spontaneous language production?
3. Plan the Learning Experience and Instruction
Consider these questions when planning instruction to move students toward the desired outcome of the unit or lesson.
- What are the vocabulary themes necessary to reach the goals and desired outcomes?
- What are the language structures necessary to reach the goals and desired outcomes?
- What activities will provide opportunities to meet the goals and desired outcomes using the three communication modes? (interpretative, presentational, interpersonal)
- What tasks will provide students with opportunities to use the language to accomplish a goal that is independent of practicing the language structures and thematic vocabulary?