We have made major strides toward language proficiency in recent years. Classroom instruction, activities and tasks have all become much more communicative in nature. Assessment has moved more toward what students can do with the language rather than simply what they know about the language. One of the most important and effective tools available in this shift toward proficiency has been the publication and implementation of the NCSSFL-ACTFL Can Do Statements. The simple use of the phrase “I Can” has put the focus on what students are able to accomplish in the foreign language and move beyond just listing vocabulary and manipulating grammar structures.
The Can Do Statements are intended to be used for any language and any age or developmental level. The reality is that a “one size fits all” approach is often challenging, particularly when a novice mid can be 6 years old or 30. For this reason many teachers have developed classroom or unit-based Can Do Statements that are developmentally appropriate to the age of the students. As many of us create individualized Can Do Statements it is important to keep our communication and proficiency goals in mind. It is easy to assume that simply putting “I Can” in front of a prompt will make it communicative.
Take a look at these “I Can” Statements and determine if they are communicative and based on proficiency:
- I can count to 100
- I can say the days of the week
- I can day the date
- I can say I like and I don’t like
- I can say sentences in the present tense
- I can say sentences in the past tense
- I can say sentences in the future tense
These are a good starting point, but they can be more communicative by providing context. Essentially they should provide an opportunity for students to do something with the language that they can produce. The above statements demonstrate what a student knows about the language, but a change in the prompt toward more communication will allow students to show what they can do with the language.
- I can tell you my phone number, age and address (using the numbers 1-100)
- I can tell you what day(s) I have a class, lesson, sports practice or rehearsal (using the days of the week)
- I can tell you my birthday and the birthdays of my friends or the date of an upcoming or past event (using knowledge of how to say the date)
- I can tell you what activities, food, movies, books, art, sports that I like to do or don’t like to do (using the phrases “I like” and “I don’t like”
- I can tell you what I typically do during the day or on the weekend or what I am doing right now (using the present tense sentence structure)
- I can tell you what I did yesterday, last week, last year or earlier today (using the past tense sentence structure)
- I can tell you what I am going to do tomorrow, next week, next year or later today (using the present tense sentence structure)
The examples above show that “I can say” does not lend itself to a conversation, whereas “I can tell” invites more detail, interaction and personalization of the language.
“I can say” is good starting point when working toward proficiency, but be sure to add in I can Statements that give students an opportunity to use the language in a communicative context as well. These are the types of tasks and prompts that will lead to increased proficiency.